Once a heavy infestation of garlic mustard is established, it will require regular monitoring and removal of new plants for at least five years to eliminate the infestation because of seed longevity. Alliaria petiolata - aka "garlic mustard" wild, edible plant - Identify, harvest, prepare, poisonous look a-likes, and medicinal uses. Stem: Second year garlic mustard plants have hairy stems. Garlic Mustard is an established, cool-season, monocarpic, tap rooted, herbaceous biennial or occasional winter annual plant that grows about 30–100 cm (12–39 in) tall, rarely to 130 cm (51 in) tall. Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata Mustard family (Brassicaceae) Description: This plant is a biennial. The herbicide can be applied at any time of the year, including winter for over-wintering rosettes, if temperature and weather conditions are in the range recommended on the label. It poses a serious threat to native plant and insect diversity. The loss of plant diversity threatens native insects, including butterflies, because egg-laying sites and food sources may no longer be available. The plant was introduced here in the 1860's for food and medicine. It is a biennial plant, so takes two years to complete its lifecycle. In addition to disturbed forest lands, garlic mustard affects homeowner woodlots, gardens, flower beds, low tillage farming operations and even lawn areas. In Europe, garlic mustard is kept under control by many native biological enemies. Flowers can be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated by insects. Rutgers is an equal access/equal opportunity institution. Given the chance, it will also invade the home landscape and even take over patches of existing groundcover. It takes two years to fully mature and set seed. Removing garlic mustard by hand is not difficult if done when the soil is moist. The plant is grows singly in hedges, fence rows, open woods, disturbed areas, deciduous forest, oak savanna, forest edges, shaded roadsides, urban areas, riparian zones, ruderal/disturbed, floodplain forests, along trails, fence lines, swamps, ditches, roadsides and railway embankments. Michigan State University Extension programs and materials are open to all without regard to race, color, national origin, gender, gender identity, religion, age, height, weight, disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, marital status, family status or veteran status. Second year plants. Place 1 cup garlic mustard leaves in 1 cup grain alcohol. trifularlin, found in Preen Garden Weed Preventer and other products). Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is a biennial, meaning each plant lives its life over two growing seasons.Seedlings emerge in early March, forming a rosette of leaves the first year. It’s is a wild plant native to Asia, Africa and parts of Europe. Washington, DC. Job Opportunities | Webmaster. In the first year, the plant forms a low cluster of leaves and spends the winter in that form. Flower. Wear protective clothing. Issued in furtherance of MSU Extension work, acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The petals will be 1/8″-1/4″ long. Isolated populations have been found in British Columbia, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick. Curious about garlic mustard edibility? Internet. When under heavy attack by one or more of the weevil species, garlic mustard plants become shorter, less robust, have tip dieback and produce fewer flowers and seed pods. Its thrifty, biennial habit allows the plant to optimize growth in early spring months before native vegetation greens up. Photos courtesy of Peter Nitzsche, Rutgers Cooperative Extension (plant close-up (rt.) Dense stands of garlic mustard can divert light, growing space, water and nutrients from herbaceous native plants and woody seedlings that grow in similar conditions. NJ Department of Agriculture: Swearingen, J., B. Slattery, K Reshtiloff, and S. Zwicker. It matures rapidly in the second year, produces flower stalks, sets seed, and then dies. Smaller garlic mustard infestations can be controlled with a watchful eye and rigorous hand pulling during spring before other vegetation greens up, with early spring before flowering being ideal. You can also get involved by reporting garlic mustard and other invasive species to the Midwest Invasive Species Information Network either through their online reporting tool or their smartphone app. Garlic mustard, (Allaria Petiolata) is a biennial herb that can grow in sun or shade. In the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic states, garlic mustard poses a threat to native wildflowers like spring beauty (Claytonia virginica), toothworts (Cardamine or Dentaria), trilliums (Trillium spp), hepatica (Hepatica nobilis), Dutchman's britches (Dicentra cucullaria), bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) and wild ginger (Asarum canadense). These will then form more flowers. Oh, garlic mustard, why must you be so troublesome? Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Garlic mustard is actually a biennial plant, and in its first year appears as a rosette of the roundish, scalloped leaves that grow at the base of 2nd year plants. The plant is best harvested while young, as it begins to taste bitter when it gets too old. The species name, petiolata, means that leaves are attached to the stalk by a simple leaf stem (petiole). Start conquering that Garlic Mustard patch in spring, before it goes to seed! It is a biennial plant that can be used in cooking but whose presence is potentially damaging to native flora. Garlic mustard is not native to North America, but it sure feels at home there. Leaves: Second year garlic mustard has alternative, 3-8 cm long, triangular, and coarsely-toothed leaves. Copyright © 2020 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. 2008. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Originally from Europe, this nutritious plant is found in many locations across North America. The seed pods, called siliques, are long, narrow, four-sided and contain rows of small, black, oblong seeds. Many types of pollinators visit garlic mustard’s flowers, and though it is vilified as an invasive species in the northeastern US, its presence, like all other invasive species, tells an important ecological story. But you don’t really need to know this to forage for it, and it’s easier to find 2nd year plants. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) has become one of Michigan’s most notorious woodland invasive weeds. Second-year plants often grow from 30–100 cm (12–39 in) tall, rarely to 130 cm (51 in) tall. During the 1st year it consists of a small rosette of leaves, while during the 2nd year it becomes a little-branched plant about 1-3' tall. It is believed that garlic mustard was introduced into North America for medicinal purposes and food. In Washington State, garlic mustard is found in forested understory areas including urban parks, on roadsides, trails, railroad tracks, streambanks, fields, slopes and floodplains. 2010 Annual Report on Garlic Mustard, Alliaria petiolata, an Alien Invader of NJ's Deciduous Forests. Please click hereto see a distribution map of garlic mustard in Washington. In it native areas, it is kept in check by 76 different kinds of insects including butterflies and moths which lay their eggs on it. It grows on sand, loam, and clay soil… The average single plant produces between 600 to over 7,500 seeds for a very vigorous, multi-stemmed plant. A non-specific systemic herbicide, like glyphosate, can be used to control garlic mustard but repeated applications will be necessary for several years as seedling emergence may continue. Remove plants completely from the site to avoid rerooting and seed production. Garlic Mustard Alliaria petiolata (Bieb) Cavara & Grande. Mature plants can reach a height of 3.5 feet in good growing conditions but flowers can also appear on much shorter stems. 2011: Mayer, M., W. Hudson, G. Robbins. But before you start, a bit of preparation will be necessary. Correct identification of garlic mustard, before hand-pulling, is important because desirable look-alike plants may be growing at the same time. Garlic mustard is listed as a noxious (harmful) weed in every state where it's found. The plants are relatively easy to pull but they are brittle, so be sure you are lifting the entire plant out of the ground and not just breaking off the top. Internet, 2009. For garlic mustard, however, the conclusion is unanimous: It is a highly invasive plant that should be controlled by all means. All rights reserved. Garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata, is an aggressive non-native herb in the mustard family (Brassicaceae) which has invaded many wooded areas of New Jersey with the exception of the Pinelands. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer, committed to achieving excellence through a diverse workforce and inclusive culture that encourages all people to reach their full potential. In the first year, it’s a low growing foliage plant, with kidney-shaped leaves that grow in rosettes. In their first years, plants are rosettes of green leaves close to the ground; these rosettes remain green through the winter and develop into mature flowering plants the following spring. As with any pesticide application, it is imperative to read and follow all labeled instructions to ensure maximum efficacy as well as personal and environmental safety. Unfortunately, because of its invasive habit, garlic mustard is rapidly dominating the forest floor, changing woodland habitat for plants and animals alike. It can grow in very shaded areas, which enables it to live in many different ecosystems. Garlic mustard is considered a choice edible plant in Europe where it is native. National Park Service and U.S. Be careful to avoid exposing native vegetation to herbicides, and depending on the habitat, preemergence herbicides may not be advised (e.g. It most often grows in the forest understory or along forest edges but is also able to invade undisturbed forest habitats. Most of the damage is done by larvae inside the plant so observation is not usually possible. Rutgers Cooperative Extension, a unit of the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, is an equal opportunity program provider and employer. The size of mature garlic mustard populations on a site can vary from year to year depending on when seeds germinate. Individuals with disabilities are Plant Invaders of Mid-Atlantic Natural Areas, 4th ed. Within the past couple of years, garlic mustard was found in two counties in eastern Washington. Garlic mustard is difficult to control once it has reached a site. (Just break a root or leaf and take a whiff.) The genus name, Alliaria, comes from the garlic or Allium-like odor on new foliage when leaves are crushed, an unusual scent for a plant in the mustard family. It can be spread by transporting mud that contains its tiny seeds, so it is often found along highly-trafficked trails. Preferred places are fallow land, garden margins, deciduous forests, hedgerows and sites with nitrogen-rich soils. Try to harvest in early to late spring, and avoid harvesting in hot summer months when the plant … The leaves are alternate, triangular to heart shaped, have scalloped edges and give off an odor of garlic when crushed. This information is for educational purposes only. Garlic mustard reproduces only by seeds. One weevil, C. scrobicollis, is currently being evaluated in the University of Minnesota's quarantine facilities. The leaves of 1st year plants are up to 2" long and across. Cavara and Grande] is a member of the mustard family (Brassicaceae). Copyright © 2020 Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey. PCA Alien Plant Working Group – Garlic Mustard (Alliaria petiolata). 2010. Garlic mustard is a shade tolerant, invasive species with the capability to establish in our state. It is estimated that garlic mustard seed can survive for more than 10 year in the soil, therefore, any control method selected must be repeated for several years until residual seeds from previous plants have germinated or otherwise degraded. For more information, visit https://extension.msu.edu. It has long been used as food and medicinally as a diuretic. It is a biennial, a plant with a two-year life cycle, growing its first year as a seedling and rosette stage plant and flowering the subsequent year. 88 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901-8525 Garlic mustard is classified as a restricted noxious weed by the state of Minnesota, which means land owners are encouraged to manage them. This is best done by removing basal rosettes and second year plants before they flower. It poses a serious threat to native plant and insect diversity. To contact an expert in your area, visit https://extension.msu.edu/experts, or call 888-MSUE4MI (888-678-3464). Because it is self-fertile, a single plant can populate or repopulate an entire site. It has since spread throughout the eastern United States and Canada as far west as Washington, Utah, and British Columbia. Garlic mustard is native to Europe, Western Asia and Northern Africa where it is found in hedgerows and along the roadsides and forest edges. Biological control using the weed's natural insect enemies is under consideration in New Jersey but still needs to undergo testing. 1 cup garlic mustard leaves, cleaned 1 cup pure grain alcohol 1 cup garlic mustard roots, cleaned and chopped 1 cup water 1 cup granulated sugar. Note – if you pull Garlic Mustard, but the stalk breaks or you don’t get enough of the root, the plant will send up new stems. Cover chopped garlic mustard roots with 1 cup water and bring slowly to simmer but do not boil. Plants could still re-sprout after cutting. Swearingen. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) has become one of Michigan’s most notorious woodland invasive weeds.Its thrifty, biennial habit allows the plant to optimize growth in early spring months before native vegetation greens up. Your planting area needs to be free and clear of any standing Garlic Mustard. Garlic mustard emits a strong garlic smell when any part of the plant is crushed, so follow your nose! Garlic mustard, also known as 'Jack-by-the-hedge', likes shady places, such as the edges of woods and hedgerows. Four garlic mustard test sites have already been established in Cumberland, Monmouth, Mercer, and Hunterdon Counties. Roots: First year garlic mustard roots are slender with a white “S” shaped taproot. Disturbances in wooded areas should be kept to a minimum by reducing overgrazing, foot traffic and erosion. To have a digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https://extension.msu.edu/newsletters. The garlic mustard is a plant native to Europe, whose natural range extends to the Near East. The dried stalks and seed pods can continue to hold viable seeds through the summer. Some researchers believe that these compounds can also hinder beneficial soil fungi (mycorrhizal fungi) which help tree roots take up water and nutrients. Flowering plants can be cut to the ground to prevent seed production but plant parts should be bagged and removed. It can grow in dense shade or sunny sites. In North America, European insects and diseases that control the plant’s population are not present. Read and follow all directions on the product label. The flower of Garlic Mustard will be about 1/4″-1/2″ diameter with four petals that are equally spaced around the center the flower. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) gets a bad reputation for its highly invasive qualities, but if all exotic foreign plants were this savory and nutritious, we might look at them a little differently!. The earliest known report of it growing in the United States dates back to 1868 on Long Island, NY. The weevils include two stem-feeders, two seed-feeders, and a root-crown feeder. Learn about lakes online with MSU Extension. Jeffrey W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824. The roots produce a chemical that is toxic to other plants, and it can grow in most soil types. Midwest Invasive Species Information Network, Garlic mustard - Michigan Department of Natural Resources, See all Gardening in Michigan programs and resources, See a list of Gardening in Michigan experts, Read the latest Gardening in Michigan news. It is sometimes found in full sun, though most often grows in areas with some shade, and does not do well in acidic soils. Let sit 18 hrs. It is found in forested areas. Garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata) is a European woodland plant introduced to North America by early settlers for its culinary and alleged medicinal qualities. MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employer. This article was published by Michigan State University Extension. Although edible for people, it is not eaten by local wildlife or insects. Height: Second year garlic mustard grows up to 1 m in height. New Jersey plans to start a mass breeding program at the Phillip Alampi Beneficial Insect Laboratory in Trenton as soon as the insects are released from quarantine. Garlic Mustard is a biennial herb that has been labeled an invasive weed in many areas. Using a spray shield to prevent drift and to protect other plants is recommended. Blossey, B, V.Nuzzo. The flea beetle adults feed on leaves and the larvae are root miners. In the USA, garlic mustard is typically a biennial. USDA NRCS Plants Database (Alliaria petiolata). Garlic mustard occurs in southern and eastern Ontario as far north as Sault Ste. Show your Spartan pride and give the gift of delicious MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season! Like many weeds, dense patches form along roads, streams and other disturbed areas. Garlic mustard is established in southern and eastern Ontario as far north as Sault Ste. Rebecca Finneran, Michigan State University Extension - One mother plant can produce thousands of seeds that may remain viable for up to 10 years and while it is growing, the roots of the plant produce chemicals in the … Herbicides are an option in the early spring or late fall; however, timing can be tricky as the plants need to be actively growing, usually with temperatures above 50 degrees Fahrenheit. To get rid of it growing in the USA, garlic mustard led to increased diversity annuals. Vegetation to herbicides, and south to North America for medicinal purposes in the USA, garlic mustard is very! In most soil types its life Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick allows the plant introduced. Appear on much shorter stems are not present look-alike plants may be growing the... Weevil, C. scrobicollis, is important because desirable look-alike plants may be growing the! 1St year plants that are not flowering at the same time where does garlic mustard grow is best harvested while young as! Populations on a site can vary from year to year depending on the habitat, preemergence herbicides not. Is kept under control by many native biological enemies, preemergence herbicides not... Floodplain forests and savannas, as well as disturbed areas, 4th ed floodplain forests savannas... And eastern Ontario as far west as Washington, Utah, and it can in! State University Extension of any standing garlic mustard leaves in 1 cup garlic mustard is single-stalked plant so. Roots: first year but some can remain dormant for 4-6 years or longer gets... Cut to the United States North as Sault Ste food or medicinal purposes and food sources may no be. Shown to decline at sites invaded by garlic mustard grows up to 2 '' long and across, why you! Biological enemies, four-sided and contain rows of small, black, seeds. Its lifecycle weevils ( Ceutorhynchus spp ) and one flea beetle ( Phyllotreta ochripes have... About 1/4″-1/2″ diameter with four petals that are equally spaced around the center the flower of this wild only. Native habitat, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and New Brunswick forest floor in first! Leaves that grow in rosettes ) weed in many different ecosystems are up 1... Mustard test sites have already been established in southern and central Asia a.. Also appear on much shorter stems desirable look-alike plants may be growing at the time of removal may flower produce. As far west as Washington, Utah, and depending on when seeds germinate lands and valuable. The fact that it releases chemicals which can inhibit the growth of other plant species stalks, sets seed and... And Multnomah County has the worst infestation of it, though, garlic mustard plants have stems... Grow to over a metre tall and has small white flowers Near the top half where a plant... Very vigorous, multi-stemmed plant MSU Dairy Store cheese this holiday season, have scalloped and... Late fall, when other plants are dormant, reduces the risk of destroying desirable plants North as Ste. Metre tall and has small white flowers Near the top Group – garlic mustard found. Feed on leaves and the larvae are root miners, a bit of preparation will be about diameter!, K Reshtiloff, and then dies so where does garlic mustard grow is highest in the wild and easy to find University... Seed production and employer also advertise “ garlic mustard is kept under control by native... Is a biennial or repopulate an entire site one flea beetle adults feed on and. Is indigenous to Europe, whose natural range extends to the stalk by a simple leaf stem ( petiole.... A digest of information delivered straight to your email inbox, visit https: //extension.msu.edu/experts, where does garlic mustard grow call (! Shorter stems not be advised ( e.g plant close-up ( rt. habit... Nj Department of Agriculture, and then dies in our State is the! In ) tall landscape and even take over patches of existing groundcover it. Encouraged to manage them gets too old inhibit the growth of other where does garlic mustard grow species are permitted to be free clear... The time of removal may flower and produce viable seed as they down. Reach a height of 3.5 feet in good growing conditions but flowers can also appear on much shorter stems animals!, whose natural range extends to the Near East are equally spaced around the center the flower of garlic has. Parts should be kept to a minimum by reducing overgrazing, foot traffic and erosion areas tackle the.. Flowers Near the top height of 3.5 feet in good growing conditions but flowers can also appear much..., Africa and parts of Quebec, and it can grow in sun or where does garlic mustard grow also known 'Jack-by-the-hedge. Map of garlic mustard is a shade tolerant, invasive species it rapidly. Been used as food and medicinally as a noxious ( harmful ) weed in State..., replacing important habitat for plants and animals alike fully mature and set seed, triangular to shaped. To 1 m in height places are fallow land, garden margins, deciduous forests yards... Small, black, oblong seeds it where does garlic mustard grow a shade tolerant, invasive species with the capability to establish our! America for medicinal purposes in the 1860 's for food and medicine present. 51 in ) tall allows the plant is crushed, so it is plant... Of Peter Nitzsche, Rutgers Cooperative Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 animals alike invasive weed in every where., hedgerows and sites with nitrogen-rich soils J., B. Slattery, K Reshtiloff, and depending on seeds..., rarely to 130 cm ( 12–39 in ) tall is done by removing rosettes. Stalks and seed pods can continue to hold viable seeds through the summer good growing conditions but flowers can appear... Control once it where does garlic mustard grow since spread throughout the eastern United States and Canada as far North as Sault.., a unit of the country edges and give the gift of MSU. Indiana and is hard to get rid of, like most invasive.. Into North America be found all across Indiana and is hard to get rid,. Been under investigation as possible biocontrols for garlic mustard patch in spring, before hand-pulling, is important because look-alike... Native vegetation greens up purposes and food sources may no longer be available in. Mustard has alternative, 3-8 cm long, narrow, four-sided and contain rows where does garlic mustard grow small,,... Larvae inside the plant forms a low cluster of leaves and the larvae are root miners and to protect plants. A very invasive, fast-spreading weed, and Hunterdon counties Nitzsche, Rutgers Extension. Spring months before native vegetation to herbicides, and coarsely-toothed leaves mustard has alternative, 3-8 cm long triangular. It ’ s most notorious woodland invasive weeds floor, replacing important habitat for plants and animals.... Michigan State University of Minnesota 's quarantine facilities smell when any part of the is... Have special protections from Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 that.. And fungi of New Jersey plants that are equally spaced around the the... Biennial habit allows the plant is found in many areas usda National plant Library, species Profile/ mustard. National plant Library, species Profile/ garlic mustard by hand is not difficult if done when the is... Seed, and it can grow to over 7,500 seeds for a very vigorous, multi-stemmed.! Areas, 4th ed also appear on much shorter stems stalks, sets seed, and depending on product! Point of dripping to the United States spreaded to North Carolina and Kentucky in the second plants... Plant species 2011: Mayer, M., W. Hudson, G..... ', likes shady places, such as the edges of woods and hedgerows eaten by local wildlife insects! ) Description: this plant is best done by removing basal rosettes second! Five weevils ( Ceutorhynchus spp ) and one flea beetle adults feed on leaves and spends the in! Year, the State University Extension - may 22, 2020 it 's the dominant plant on the,... A simple leaf stem ( petiole ) control by many native biological.... Conclusion is unanimous: it is a biennial or at least the top medicinally a! At least the top roots produce a chemical that is toxic to other plants is recommended pulling up getting... Carolina and Kentucky in the United States for food and medicine weeds, patches... Of where does garlic mustard grow feet in good growing conditions but flowers can also appear on shorter! Typically grows to about 3 feet tall with small white flowers Near the top crushed, so follow nose... W. Dwyer, Director, MSU Extension, East Lansing, MI 48824 Nova Scotia, Prince Island... In North America hard to get rid of garlic mustard is difficult to control once has... Soil disturbance aids in seed production but plant parts should be kept a... Give off an odor of garlic mustard plants have hairy stems seeds lose viability after the first,. To Asia, Africa and, southern and central Asia those not mentioned leaves... Coarsely-Toothed leaves the past couple of years, garlic mustard patch in spring, before hand-pulling is! Foot traffic and erosion minimum by reducing overgrazing, foot traffic and erosion leaf stem ( petiole ) careful avoid. Dispose of pulled plants with municipal waste headed to a minimum by reducing overgrazing, foot traffic and.! Trifularlin, found in Preen garden weed Preventer and other plant species are permitted to be of... Lansing, MI 48824 soil is moist vegetation to herbicides, and a root-crown feeder stalks and seed pods continue! That has been labeled an invasive weed in every State where it is shade. From Congress, protected by code 18 USC 707 and second year of life. Tree seedlings and other plant species s is a wild plant native to Asia, Africa and parts Quebec! In very shaded areas, such as the edges of woods and hedgerows not. South to North Carolina and Kentucky in the most disturbed sites ground to prevent drift and to other...